The van der Corput sequence is the simplest one-dimensional low-discrepancy sequence over the unit interval; it was first described in 1935 by the Dutch mathematician J. G. van der Corput. It is constructed by reversing the base-\(p\) representation of the sequence of natural numbers (1, 2, 3, …).

The \(p\)-ary representation of the positive integer \(n (\geq 1)\) is

\[ n = \sum_{k = 0}^{L-1} d_k(n) \, p^{k} \]

where \(p\) is the base in which the number \(n\) is represented, and \(0 \leq d_p(n) < p\), i.e. the k-th digit in the \(p\)-ary expansion of \(n\). The \(n\)-th number in the van der Corput sequence is

\[ g_p(n) = \sum_{k = 0}^{L-1} d_k(n) \, \frac{1}{p^{k+1}} \] # Evaluation of the Van der Corput sequence

```
U = vanDerCorput(n = 10000, nd=1)$getColumn(0)
summary(U)
```

```
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 0.000061 0.249970 0.499939 0.499833 0.749908 0.999878
```

`hist(U, col = "orange", main = "VDC in one dimension")`

```
UG <- vanDerCorput(n = 10000, nd = 2)
UG1 = UG$getColumn(0)
UG2 = UG$getColumn(1)
hist(UG1)
```

`hist(UG2)`

```
plot(UG1[1:1000], UG2[1:1000],
xlab = "U", ylab = "V", main = "The first 1000 points")
```

```
np <- 100
nd <- 50
Umat <- vanDerCorput(n = np, nd = nd)
U = matrix(Umat$getValues(),nrow=Umat$getNRows())
means <- apply(X = U, MARGIN = 2, FUN = mean)
stds <- apply(X = U, MARGIN = 2, FUN = sd)
plot(NULL, NULL, xlim = c(1,50), ylim = c(0,1),
xlab = "Number of dimensions",
ylab = "Mean or Std.", main = paste0("Van Der Corput sequence - N = ", np))
abline(h = 0.5, col = "orange", lty = 2)
abline(h = sqrt(1/12), col = "skyblue", lty = 2)
lines(1:50, means, lty = 1, col = "orange")
lines(1:50, stds , lty = 1, col = "skyblue")
```

```
np <- 100000
nd <- 50
Umat <- vanDerCorput(n = np, nd = nd)
U = matrix(Umat$getValues(),nrow=Umat$getNRows())
means <- apply(X = U, MARGIN = 2, FUN = mean)
stds <- apply(X = U, MARGIN = 2, FUN = sd)
plot(NULL, NULL, xlim = c(1,50), ylim = c(0,1),
xlab = "Number of dimensions",
ylab = "Mean or Std.", main = paste0("Van Der Corput sequence - N = ", np))
abline(h = 0.5, col = "orange", lty = 2)
abline(h = sqrt(1/12), col = "skyblue", lty = 2)
lines(1:50, means, lty = 1, col = "orange")
lines(1:50, stds , lty = 1, col = "skyblue")
```

The \(n\)-sphere is defined as \[ S^n = \{s \in \mathbb{R}^{n+1} : ||x|| = 1\} \] and a direction in \(\mathbb{R}^{n+1}\) is a point on the half \(n\)-sphere.

A simple approach to generating a uniform point on \(S^n\) uses the fact that the multivariate normal distribution with independent standardized components is radially symmetric, i.e., it is invariant under orthogonal rotations. Therefore, if \(Y \sim \mathcal{N}({\bf 0}_{n+1}, {\bf I}_{n+1})\), then \(S_n = Y /||Y||\) has the uniform distribution on the unit \(n\)-sphere.

For the simulation of a direction, i.e. a point on \(S^n_{+}\), the last axis is selected as a reference and points with a negative coordinate along this axis are replaced by their symmetric points relatively to the origin.

Finally, in order to build a quasi random values on the half \(n\)-sphere, the normal variables are simulated using the inverse method and the pseudo random generator on \([0,1]^{n+1}\) is replaced by the Van der Corput sequence which is a quasi random generator on \([0,1]^{n+1}\).

```
phi <- 2*pi*(0:1000)/1001
cs <- cos(phi)
sn <- sin(phi)
```

```
# Directions in R^3
nd <- 3
for (meth in c("vdc", "prng")) {
for (np in c(100, 1000, 10000)){
for (ix in 1:(nd-1)) {
for (iy in (ix+1):nd){
plot_dir(np, nd = nd, meth = meth, ix = ix, iy = iy)
}
}
}
}
```